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The Ultimate Guide to Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise: Reviews and Recommendations

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Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise stands as a beacon for developers aiming to swiftly build high-performing, enterprise-ready applications that are primed for dynamic scalability. Its foundation in CFML, a language celebrated for its powerful scripting capabilities and user-friendly tag-based syntax, makes Adobe ColdFusion a top choice. This development platform not only caters to web developers crafting dynamic websites and internet applications but also unlocks a realm of possibilities for Java and mobile app developers through its integration capabilities with Java, .NET, SOAP web services, REST, and more.

Embarking on an exploration of Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise, this article will dissect its core features, dissect user experience and customization options, and evaluate its performance and scalability. Furthermore, it will delve into the security features that safeguard applications, the integration capabilities that enhance them, and the pricing and licensing options available to developers. Additionally, the article will provide insights into the support and resources offered by Adobe, compare Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise with its competitors, and conclude with recommendations for those considering its adoption. This comprehensive guide aims to equip developers with the knowledge to fully leverage Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise in their projects.

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Core Features of Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise

Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise is renowned for its robust suite of features designed to enhance productivity, security, and performance for enterprise-level applications. This section delves into the core functionalities that make Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise a standout choice for developers.

Modularization and Continuous Integration

  1. Modularization: Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise allows for modular application development, enabling developers to manage and deploy only the necessary services. This not only simplifies the development process but also speeds up application deployment.
  2. Continuous Integration: Seamless integration with existing CI/CD pipelines ensures that new features and updates are smoothly rolled out without disrupting ongoing operations.

Enhanced Performance Features

  • Docker Images: Facilitate consistent deployment across various environments, ensuring that applications perform optimally regardless of the underlying infrastructure.
  • Asynchronous Programming: By offloading resource-intensive tasks to secondary threads, Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise improves application responsiveness and scalability.
  • Distributed Cache: Enhances the overall performance of applications by reducing the load on the database and ensuring faster data retrieval.

Advanced Security and Monitoring

  • Security Enhancements: Includes robust security features such as LDAP and SAML integration, single sign-on, auto lockdown, and JWT integration, providing comprehensive protection against threats.
  • Database and External Services Monitoring: Offers tools to monitor database performance in real-time and ensures all IT infrastructure components are synchronized, enhancing reliability and performance.

Developer Productivity Tools

  • Full CFSCRIPT Support: Developers can access all ColdFusion functionalities using CFSCRIPT, making script management more straightforward and efficient.
  • CLI and REPL: Command Line Interface and Read-Eval-Print Loop further simplify management tasks, allowing for direct interaction with files, databases, and web services.
  • Code Profiler and Security Code Analyzer: These tools help identify performance bottlenecks and security vulnerabilities, respectively, enabling developers to optimize code effectively.

PDF and HTML Capabilities

  • HTML to PDF Conversion: Generate pixel-perfect PDFs from HTML pages, preserving the layout, formatting, and hyperlinks, which is ideal for reports and documentation.
  • Dynamic HTML5 Charting: Create interactive and visually appealing charts directly from data sources, enhancing the user experience.

Specialized Features for Enterprise Use

  • Central Configuration Server: Manage settings across multiple ColdFusion servers from a central point, simplifying administration tasks and ensuring consistency.
  • Performance Monitoring Toolset: Available in both Enterprise and Standard editions, this toolset helps monitor and optimize the performance of ColdFusion applications.

Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise not only supports a wide range of development needs but also provides specialized tools and features that are particularly beneficial for large-scale and high-security applications. Its capabilities in modularization, security, and performance management make it a preferred choice for enterprise environments.


User Experience and Customization

Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise is designed to enhance user experience and customization, catering to a diverse range of development needs across various platforms. This section explores how Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise supports developers in creating personalized and efficient applications.

Platform Compatibility and Language Support

Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise boasts extensive platform compatibility, supporting Linux, Windows, Mac, and Solaris. This wide-ranging support ensures that developers can deploy their applications across multiple environments without compatibility issues. The availability of Universal English as the language option further simplifies development processes, making it accessible for a global developer community.

Development Tools and Extensions

The integration of Adobe ColdFusion Builder extension for Visual Studio Code exemplifies Adobe’s commitment to enhancing developer productivity. This extension allows developers to edit and validate code, manage files and projects efficiently, and incorporate advanced debugging and security vulnerability scanning tools directly within their development environment.

Central Configuration for Simplified Management

The Central Configuration Server is a pivotal feature for enterprises managing multiple ColdFusion servers. It enables administrators to manage a cluster, auto-discover nodes, and seamlessly add them to the Central Configuration Server from the admin UI. This functionality not only simplifies the management of large-scale deployments but also enhances the reliability and efficiency of server operations.

Extensibility and Integration

Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise excels in offering extensive customization options through advanced extensibility. Developers can create custom tags, reusable object-based components, and user-defined functions, which facilitate the development of tailored solutions that meet specific business requirements. Additionally, the platform’s robust integration capabilities with Java, .NET, SOAP web services, and REST APIs enable developers to extend their applications’ functionality and interoperability further.

Specialized Development for Java and Mobile Platforms

For Java developers, Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise serves as a powerful tool to rapidly build Java EE-based web applications, enhancing both the speed and quality of development. Mobile app developers also benefit significantly from ColdFusion’s capabilities, which allow for the quick development, testing, debugging, and deployment of applications across multiple devices with minimal effort. This support dramatically reduces the complexity and time required in mobile app development, enabling developers to focus more on innovation and user experience.

Through these features, Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise not only supports a wide range of development needs but also provides specialized tools and features that are particularly beneficial for enhancing user experience and customization in large-scale and high-security applications.

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Performance and Scalability

Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise has consistently demonstrated its capacity for high performance and scalability, particularly in environments that demand robust, enterprise-level applications. This section will explore the various features and enhancements that make Adobe ColdFusion a preferred choice for organizations looking to scale their operations efficiently.

Key Performance Enhancements

1. Enhanced Server Performance

Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise offers significant improvements in server performance. Comparisons between versions show that ColdFusion 9 operates up to 40% faster than its predecessor, ColdFusion 8, and up to six times faster than ColdFusion MX 7. These enhancements ensure that applications can handle larger volumes of traffic and more complex processes without degradation in performance.

2. Efficient Object and Method Handling

The creation and invocation of CFC (ColdFusion Components) objects are notably faster in ColdFusion 9, with object creation being eight times faster compared to ColdFusion 8. Additionally, method invocation has seen a threefold increase in speed. These improvements contribute to quicker execution of applications and an overall boost in efficiency.

3. Optimized Date and Cache Functions

ColdFusion 9 has introduced optimizations in several key areas:

  • Date Functions: These functions show a 35% performance improvement, aiding in faster processing of date-related calculations.
  • Page and Distributed Caching: With a 30% improvement in page caching and the integration of popular caching engines like JCS, Memcached, and Redis, applications can retrieve data more quickly and reduce load times.

Scalability Features

1. Virtualized and Clustered Environments

ColdFusion Enterprise Edition is specifically designed to deliver outstanding performance in clustered or virtualized environments. It supports up to eight containers per Enterprise license, allowing businesses to scale their operations horizontally as demand increases.

2. Automatic Tuning and Load Management

The platform includes features like automatic connector tuning, which helps eliminate common errors such as ‘503 Service Unavailable’ by optimizing server connections. This ensures that applications remain available and performant even under high traffic conditions.

3. Asynchronous Programming and Modularization

By utilizing asynchronous programming techniques and modular code integration, ColdFusion allows for offloading resource-intensive tasks to secondary threads. This not only speeds up the main application processes but also enhances the user experience by keeping the application responsive.

Cloud and Containerization Support

1. Multi-Cloud Compatibility

Adobe ColdFusion (2023 release) simplifies development across multiple cloud environments including GCP, AWS, and Azure, with zero code rewrites required. This flexibility is crucial for businesses looking to leverage cloud scalability without being tied to a single provider.

2. Docker Integration

ColdFusion’s support for Docker containers enables developers to deploy and scale applications quickly in any environment. This compatibility with modern orchestration tools facilitates seamless scalability and management of application deployments across various infrastructures.

Central Configuration and Management

The Central Configuration Server in Adobe ColdFusion allows for centralized management of multiple ColdFusion servers. It automatically discovers ColdFusion nodes within the network and integrates them into the server cluster through the admin UI. This feature not only simplifies the management of large server clusters but also ensures consistent configurations across the board, reducing the overhead associated with manual configuration and maintenance.

These performance and scalability features of Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise illustrate its capability to support high-volume, high-performance applications across diverse operating environments. By continuously integrating new performance enhancements and supporting modern cloud and containerization technologies, ColdFusion remains a strong contender for enterprises aiming to boost their application efficiency and scalability.

Security Features

Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise is equipped with a comprehensive suite of security features designed to protect applications from various threats and vulnerabilities. These features ensure that both the development and deployment environments are secure, safeguarding sensitive information and maintaining the integrity and confidentiality of user data.

Authentication and Access Control

LDAP and SAML Integration

ColdFusion Enterprise facilitates seamless integration with LDAP servers, allowing administrators to manage user access and permissions efficiently. SAML integration supports Single Sign-On (SSO), providing users with a unified authentication experience across multiple applications.

NTML Authentication Support

ColdFusion enhances security through NTML authentication support on various ColdFusion services such as CFSHAREPOINT, CFOBJECT, and CFINVOKE, ensuring secure communication and data exchange within enterprise environments.

Enhanced PDF Security

ColdFusion’s PDF management features include several security measures:

  • PDF Digital Signatures: Attach electronic signatures to PDF documents to verify the authenticity and integrity of the content.
  • PDF Sanitization: Remove sensitive information from PDF files to prevent the accidental disclosure of hidden data.
  • PDF Redaction: Permanently obscure specific information within a PDF document to protect confidential information.

Security Code Analyzer

The Security Code Analyzer in ColdFusion Enterprise plays a crucial role in identifying potential security vulnerabilities within application code. It automatically scans the codebase and provides detailed reports on security risks, including the type of vulnerability and its severity level. This tool is invaluable for developers aiming to fortify their applications against common security threats such as SQL injection and cross-site scripting (XSS).

API Security

ColdFusion provides robust security measures for API management:

  • Threat Protection: Implements out-of-the-box policies to safeguard APIs from unauthorized access and attacks.
  • API Rate Limiting and Throttling: Controls the rate of API requests to manage load and prevent abuse.
  • API Monitoring and Caching: Enhances performance and security by monitoring API usage patterns and caching API responses.

Comprehensive Application Security

ColdFusion offers several additional security features to enhance application safety:

  • Auto Lockdown: Simplifies the process of securing a production server by automating the lockdown procedure with just a click, ensuring that all security best practices are enforced.
  • Script Protect: Automatically detects and blocks potential XSS attacks, enhancing the security of web applications.
  • User Role Management: Allows the assignment of users to specific roles, enabling fine-grained access control within applications.

These security features of Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise highlight its capability to provide a secure environment for developing and deploying web applications. By leveraging these advanced security tools, organizations can significantly reduce the risk of security breaches and ensure the protection of sensitive data.

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Integration Capabilities

Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise demonstrates robust integration capabilities that streamline application development and deployment across various platforms and environments. This section explores the extensive support Adobe ColdFusion provides for multiple application servers, databases, web servers, and other technologies, enhancing its utility in diverse IT infrastructures.

Comprehensive Server and Database Support

  1. Application Server Compatibility: Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise supports a wide array of application servers including IBM WebSphere, Oracle WebLogic, Adobe JRun, Apache Tomcat, and JBoss. This wide-ranging support ensures that enterprises can leverage their existing infrastructure without needing significant changes or additional investments.
  2. Database Integration: It integrates seamlessly with major databases such as Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, IBM DB2, Sybase, and IBM Informix. This compatibility allows organizations to manage large datasets effectively and perform complex database operations within their ColdFusion applications.
  3. Web Server Support: Adobe ColdFusion is compatible with major web servers including IIS, Apache, and Sun. This ensures that applications built with ColdFusion can be reliably hosted and managed on the most widely used web servers, providing flexibility and ease of deployment.

Enhanced Configuration and Management

  • Central Configuration Server: This feature simplifies the management of multiple ColdFusion servers. It allows for auto-discovery of ColdFusion nodes within the network and their addition to the Central Configuration Server, streamlining administration and ensuring consistency across the server environment.
  • Modularization and Docker Support: Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise facilitates modular application development, allowing for the installation of only necessary services. Additionally, its compatibility with Docker ensures that applications can be deployed and scaled quickly in any environment, maintaining consistency across different stages of development.

Cloud and API Management

  • Multi-cloud Deployment: Adobe ColdFusion supports deployment across multiple cloud platforms including GCP, AWS, and Azure. This capability allows businesses to choose the cloud service that best fits their needs, optimizing both performance and cost.
  • API Management Tools: Adobe ColdFusion includes powerful API management features such as rate limiting, throttling, caching, and access control. These tools help manage how APIs are consumed and ensure that applications remain secure and performant under various usage scenarios.

Integration with Other Technologies

  • Java Integration: Built on top of the Java stack, Adobe ColdFusion offers tight integration with Java, allowing developers to call Java from ColdFusion and vice versa without learning complex Java technologies. This makes it an excellent tool for rapidly building and deploying Java EE-based web applications.
  • .NET and Messaging Services: ColdFusion applications can directly access and control Microsoft products using .NET assemblies. It also integrates with major messaging services like Azure Service Bus, AWS SNS/SQS, and GCP Pub/Sub, enhancing the performance and scalability of applications that rely on message-oriented middleware.
  • NoSQL and Relational Databases: The platform supports dynamic scalability with NoSQL databases like AWS DynamoDB, GCP MongoDB, and GCP Firestore, as well as relational databases through services like Amazon RDS, Azure Database Services, and GCP Cloud SQL.

These integration capabilities of Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise significantly enhance its appeal to enterprises looking to streamline their application development and deployment processes across a diverse technological landscape. By supporting a broad range of platforms, databases, and other technologies, ColdFusion ensures that enterprises can build and manage powerful, scalable applications with ease.

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Pricing and Licensing

Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise is available in two distinct editions, each tailored to meet different levels of demand and operational scales. The Standard Edition is designed for single-server deployments with moderate traffic, while the Enterprise Edition is suited for more demanding environments that require robust, high-traffic handling across multiple servers.

Editions and Core Pricing

  1. Standard Edition: Priced at US$2,499, this edition covers two cores and is ideal for delivering robust websites with moderate traffic.
  2. Enterprise Edition: At a cost of US$9,499, this edition covers eight cores and is tailored for large-scale business applications requiring high performance and scalability.

Licensing Options and Upgrades

  • Developer Edition: For those developing with ColdFusion, Adobe offers a complimentary Developer Edition, which is a full-featured server for development purposes only and not for production use.
  • Upgrade Pricing: Adobe provides special upgrade pricing for customers with a valid ColdFusion (2021 release) license. However, those running versions earlier than ColdFusion 2018 are not eligible for these upgrade options.

Support and Maintenance

  • Complimentary Installation Support: All purchasers of Adobe ColdFusion (2023 release) receive free installation support, ensuring smooth setup and deployment.
  • Extended Support Plans: For ongoing technical support beyond installation, Adobe offers paid plans that cover a broad range of developer and technical issues.

Educational and Non-Profit Licensing

  • Educational License: Adobe ColdFusion Standard is available at no cost to eligible educational institutions, provided it is used for learning purposes and not for actual production.
  • School License: For educational entities requiring more robust capabilities, the Enterprise edition is available under a school license for $6,350.

Comparison with Competitor Pricing

Adobe ColdFusion stands out not only for its powerful features but also for its competitive pricing when compared to other major platforms:

  • PHP (Zend, Laravel): While these are open-source and free, they require additional investments for support and customization.
  • Microsoft .NET: Generally more expensive than Adobe ColdFusion, it offers a comprehensive development platform with strong support for Windows-based systems.
  • Ruby on Rails and Java (Spring, JBoss): These frameworks are also open-source and free, but they might lack the integrated enterprise features that Adobe ColdFusion offers.

Additional Costs

  • Adobe Gold Support: For extensive technical support, Adobe offers Gold Support for ColdFusion Enterprise, priced at USD $2,683.99 for two years.
  • Cloud or VM Deployments: ColdFusion Enterprise can also be purchased on a per virtual core basis for deployment in cloud environments or on virtual machines, providing flexibility for modern IT infrastructures.

This detailed breakdown of pricing and licensing for Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise reveals a flexible approach to cost that accommodates a wide range of business needs, from individual developers to large educational institutions and enterprises.

Support and Resources

Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise offers a comprehensive array of support resources tailored to enhance the user experience and streamline problem-solving processes. This section delves into the variety of support options available, ensuring that users can fully leverage the capabilities of Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise.

Comprehensive Support Offerings

Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise facilitates a robust support framework that includes multiple facets designed to assist users at various levels of their interaction with the software. Below is a detailed look at these offerings:

  1. Learn & Support Platform: This platform serves as the first point of contact for new and existing users, featuring resources such as:
    • Get Started guides
    • Tutorials for advanced features
    • Comprehensive user guides
    • Free trial information for new users
  2. Adobe Gold Support: Aimed at businesses requiring immediate technical assistance, Gold Support includes:
    • 24×7 support with a response time of 1 business hour
    • Phone consulting
    • Advanced configuration and deployment assistance
    • Troubleshooting for interoperability and network configuration issues
  3. Adobe Platinum Maintenance and Support: This package is designed for large enterprises with mission-critical applications, offering services similar to Gold Support but with additional maintenance provisions to ensure uninterrupted operations.
  4. Technical Account Manager (TAM) Support Program: Offers high-level SLAs and a dedicated channel for direct access to expert support resources, enhancing the support experience for major enterprise customers.

Support Accessibility and Regional Availability

Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise’s support system is globally accessible, ensuring that users from different regions can receive assistance tailored to their specific needs. The support resources are structured as follows:

  • Americas
  • Europe
  • Middle East & Africa
  • Asia Pacific

This global distribution ensures that support is available round the clock, adhering to various time zones and regional requirements.

Support Lifecycle and Policies

Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise is committed to providing long-term support to its users, which includes:

  • Core Support: Available for five years from each release, includes:
    • Quarterly hot fixes
    • Security patches
    • Phone and email support
  • Extended Support: Offered for an additional year after core support ends, providing best-effort assistance to help customers transition to supported versions.
  • Gold and Platinum Support Plans: These plans include all core support services plus:
    • 24×7 support under Service Level Agreements (SLAs)
    • Hot fixes and security fixes as required

Interactive and Community Engagement Features

To foster a collaborative environment, Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise encourages user interaction through various channels:

  • Adobe ColdFusion User Community: A platform where users can share insights, ask questions, and find solutions from peers and experts.
  • Interactive Features: Include options like ‘Ask the Community’ and direct ‘Contact Us’ for real-time assistance from Adobe professionals.

Resource Accessibility

Users can easily access all support resources through Adobe’s Insight website, where they can find detailed information about support services, user guides, and tutorial videos. Additionally, the site offers language and region selection to access localized content, enhancing the user experience for non-English speakers.

By providing a layered and comprehensive support structure, Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise ensures that all users, regardless of their location or the complexity of their issues, have access to the necessary resources to maximize their use of the software.

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Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise vs. Competitors

Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise, renowned for its robust features tailored for enterprise-level applications, faces stiff competition from a variety of platforms each offering unique capabilities. Here’s a detailed look at how Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise compares with its top competitors in the market.


OutSystems is highly rated as an alternative to Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise, primarily for its efficiency in mobile development platforms. It supports UI code extending and seamless application deployment, making it a strong contender for businesses focusing on mobile-first strategies.

Claris FileMaker

Claris FileMaker stands out as a top-rated competitor, offering extensive features for mobile development. Similar to OutSystems, it facilitates UI code extending and application deployment, appealing to enterprises looking for robust mobile solutions.


Quickbase is recognized for its productive platform tailored to mobile development, supporting UI code extending and application deployment. Its user-friendly interface and powerful data management capabilities make it a preferred choice for dynamic application development.


As a popular solution, Postman competes closely with Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise by offering a specialized platform for mobile development with UI code extending capabilities. It simplifies the process of application deployment, catering to developers looking for streamlined operations.


ServiceNow specializes in cloud-based task management with a focus on IT operations, services, and business management. Although it comes with a higher cost compared to local or regional solutions, its comprehensive service management suite is invaluable for large enterprises.

Microsoft Power Apps

Microsoft Power Apps is noted for its rapid application development and low-code platform. While it offers a broad range of apps and services, scaling up requires additional licenses, which might be a consideration for growing businesses.


Appian provides a unified low-code platform that adapts well to client needs and existing technologies, making it a versatile choice for businesses aiming to streamline their application development and workflow processes.

Oracle Application Express (APEX)

Oracle APEX is a powerful low-code development platform that allows secure and scalable enterprise app development. It is integrated within the Oracle Database, offering world-class features and the ability to deploy applications anywhere.

Salesforce Platform

The Salesforce Platform excels in application building with its open APIs, integration tools, and developer environments. It aids in increasing work productivity and saving on IT costs, making it a strong option for businesses focused on efficiency and growth.


OpenBD, an open-source CFML engine, is known for its scalability and flexibility. With robust community support, it serves as a viable alternative for those looking for a scalable and adaptable development platform.

This comparative analysis highlights the strengths and areas of specialization of Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise and its competitors, providing a clear perspective for businesses to consider when choosing the most suitable platform for their development needs.


Throughout this comprehensive exploration, we’ve delved into the multifaceted capabilities of Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise, highlighting its unparalleled efficiency in building and managing high-performing, scalable enterprise applications. The detailed examination of its core features, dedicated security measures, robust integration capabilities, and flexible pricing options underscores its value proposition for developers and enterprises alike. By showcasing the platform’s strengths across various parameters, including performance, scalability, security, and developer productivity, this guide aims to provide a holistic view that empowers decision-makers in their technology selection process.

In summing up, Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise emerges as a significant contender in the realm of enterprise application development platforms, offering a blend of agility, security, and scalability that is hard to match. As businesses continue to navigate the complexities of digital transformation, the insights presented here underline the critical impact of choosing the right development platform. Adobe ColdFusion, with its rich set of features and extensive support ecosystem, positions itself as a strategic tool for enterprises aiming to accelerate their application development lifecycle while ensuring robust performance and security.


What is the current support status for Adobe ColdFusion?
Adobe continues to support ColdFusion. Interested users can download a 30-day free trial by signing in with an Adobe ID and password. For assistance with downloading and installing the trial version that is not part of the Creative Cloud, visit Adobe’s support page.

Can you explain what Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise is?
Adobe ColdFusion Enterprise is a robust and high-performance application server that simplifies web development for programmers. It is designed to facilitate quick and efficient coding for developers of varying skill levels.

How much time is required to learn ColdFusion?
It is possible to learn the fundamentals of ColdFusion in as little as one week through the “Learn CF in a Week” program. This community-driven initiative is taught by experts in the field and covers all the essential skills needed to become proficient in ColdFusion development.

Is ColdFusion considered a good programming language?
ColdFusion is recognized for its simplicity, speed of development, integration capabilities, and extensive built-in functionality. While it may lack some object-oriented programming (OOP) features found in Java, ColdFusion is a strong choice for certain application types and development contexts due to its unique advantages.

Daniel Long

Daniel Long

About Author

Daniel Long, as a writer, delves into the realm of emerging technologies and business solutions, with a particular emphasis on optimizing efficiency and fostering growth. He educational background includes a Bachelor's degree in English from the University of California, Irvine, and he furthered his knowledge by attaining an MBA from Chapman University. This combination of expertise allows him to offer valuable insights into the ever-evolving business landscape.

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